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The Global Market for Equipment

and Materials for IC Manufacturing

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Chapter 1 

Introduction 

1-1

 

 

 

Chapter 2 

Low-K Dielectric Issues and Trends

2-1

 

 

 

2.1

Introduction

2-1

2.2

Ideal Dielectric

2-2

2.3

Types of Low-K Dielectrics

2-5

2.3.1

FSG

2-5

2.3.2

HSQ

2-7

2.3.3

Nanoporous Silica

2-8

2.3.4

Spin-on Polymers

2-9

2.3.5

BCB

2-16

2.3.6

Flowfill

2-16

2.3.7

CVD

2-17

2.3.8

AF4

2-20

2.3.9

PTFE

2-20

2.4

Processing Issues

2-21

2.5

Summary

2-33

2.5.1

Integration Issues

2-33

2.5.2

Low-K Dielectric Issues

2-34

 

 

 

Chapter 3 

Lithography Issues And Trends

3-1

 

 

 

3.1

Optical Systems

3-1

3.1.1

Scanning Projection Aligners

3-5

3.1.2

Step-and-Repeat Aligners

3-14

3.1.3

248nm DUV Resist

3-31

3.1.4

193nm DUV Resist

3-33

3.1.5

Mix-and-Match

3-36

3.1.6

157nm DUV And Resist

3-37

3.1.7

EUV

3-42

3.2

X-Ray Systems

3-46

3.2.1

X-Ray Sources

3-46

3.2.2

X-Ray Masks

3-51

3.2.3

X-Ray Steppers

3-53

3.2.4

X-Ray Resists

3-54

3.3

Electron Beam Systems

3-55

3.4

Ion Beam Systems

3-62

3.4.1

Direct Write

3-62

3.4.2

Ion Channel Masking

3-63

3.4.3

Ion Projection

3-63

3.5

New Technologies

3-65

3.5.1

Mulith Reference Distribution Aerial Image Formation

3-65

3.5.2

Holograms

3-71

3.5.3

X-Ray Laser

3-71

3.5.4

Atom Lithography

3-71

3.5.5

Microlenses

3-75

3.5.6

Nano-Imprint Lithography

3-80

3.5.7

Immersion Lithography

3-84

3.6

Conclusion

3-88

 

 

 

Chapter 4 

CMP Issues and Trends

4-1

 

 

 

4.1

Need for Planarity

4-1

4.1.1

Lithography

4-4

4.1.2

Deposition

4-6

4.1.3

Etching

4-9

4.2

Applications

4-10

4.2.1

Dielectrics

4-10

4.2.2

Metals

4-13

4.3

Planarization Techniques

4-15

4.3.1

Local Planarization

4-15

4.3.1.1 

Deposition-Etchback

4-15

4.3.1.2 

ECR

4-17

4.3.1.3 

Oxide Reflow

4-17

4.3.1.4 

Spin-on-Glass

4-18

4.3.1.5 

TEOS-Ozone

4-18

4.3.1.6 

Laser

4-19

4.3.2

Global Planarization

4-20

4.3.2.1 

Polymer

4-20

4.3.2.2   

Isotropic Etch

4-22

4.3.2.4 

Spin Etch Planarization

4-23

4.3.2.5 

Electropolishing

4-24

4.4

Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP)

4-26

4.4.1

Background

4-31

4.4.2

Research Efforts

4-32

4.4.3

Advantages and Disadvantages

4-33

4.4.4

Process Parameters

4-35

4.4.4.1 

STI Planarization

4-36

4.4.4.2 

Copper CMP

4-41

4.4.4.3 

Low-K Integration

4-55

4.4.4.4 

Defect Density

4-67

4.4.4.5 

Metrology

4-69

4.4.5

Device Processing Parameters

4-83

4.4.5.1

Memory Devices

4-83

4.4.5.2 

Logic Devices

4-84

 

 

 

Chapter 5

Factory Automation Issues and Trends

5-1

 

 

 

5.1

Introduction

5-1

5.2

Elements of Automation

5-2

5.2.1

Tool Automation

5-2

5.2.2

Intrabay Automation

5-3

5.2.3

Interbay Automation

5-4

5.2.4

Material-Control System

5-7

5.3

Flexible Automation

5-9

5.4

Reliability

5-11

5.5

Tool Issues and Trends

5-12

5.5.1

Flexible Tool Interface

5-12

5.5.2

Vacuum Robotics

5-31

5.5.3

AGV

5-41

5.5.4

CMP

5-44

5.5.5

300-mm Wafer Transport

5-45

5.5.6

Bridge Tools

5-48

5.5.7

Mini-Environments and Cleanroom Issues

5-51

 

 

 

Chapter 6 

Thin Film Deposition Issues and Trends

6-1

 

 

 

6.1  

Physical Vapor Deposition

6-1

6.1.1

Sputtering Technology

6-2

6.1.2

Plasma Technology

6-5

6.1.3

Reactor Designs

6-14

6.1.3.1

Long-Throw Deposition

6-14

6.1.3.2

Collimated Sputter Deposition

6-16

6.1.3.3

Showerhead Deposition

6-18

6.1.3.4

Ionized PVD

6-22

6.1.4

Semiconductor Processing

6-28

6.1.4.1

Feature Patterning

6-28

6.1.4.2

Gap Fill

6-31

6.2

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Techniques

6-34

6.2.1

APCVD

6-35

6.2.2

LPCVD

6-39

6.2.3

PECVD

6-42

6.2.4

HDPCVD

6-46

6.2.5

ALD

6-52

 

 

 

Chapter 7 

Plasma Etching  Issues and Trends

7-1

 

 

 

7.1

Introduction

7-1

7.2

Processing Issues

7-14

7.2.1

Chlorine Versus Fluorine Processes

7-19

7.2.2

Multilevel Structures

7-32

7.2.3

New Metallization Materials

7-39

7.2.4

GaAs Processing

7-46

7.3

Plasma Stripping

7-49

7.3.1

Photoresist Stripping

7-48

7.3.2

Low-K Removal

7-68

 

 

 

Chapter 8 

Cluster Tools Issues and Trends

8-1

 

 

 

8.1

Definitions

8-1

8.2

Device Technology and Integrated Processing

8-4

8.3

Main Functional Units

8-7

8.3.1

Central Handling Platform

8-7

8.3.2

Cassette Stations

8-7

8.3.3

Extension Modules

8-8

8.3.4

Single Process Modules

8-8

8.3.5

Batch Modules

8-8

8.3.6

Multiple Process Modules

8-9

8.4

Cluster Tool Communications

8-10

8.4.1

Cluster Tool Controller

8-13

8.4.2

Transport Module Controller

8-13

8.4.3

Process Module Controller

8-14

8.4.4

Control Software

8-14

8.4.5

Human Interface Software

8-15

8.4.6

Networking Software

8-16

8.5

Vacuum System Design

8-17

8.6

Trends

8-17

8.6.1

Deposition - Plasma Etch

8-19

8.6.2

Deposition - Rapid Thermal Processing

8-20

8.6.3

Lithography - Resist Processing

8-21

8.6.4

Diagnostics - Process

8-22

8.6.5

CMP Polish - Clean

8-24

 

 

 

Chapter 9 

Chemicals and Materials Issues and Trends

9-1

 

 

 

9.1

Liquid Chemicals

9-1

9.1.1

Acids and Solvents

9-1

9.1.2

Resists

9-6

9.1.2.1 

Resist Materials

9-6

9.1.2.2 

Resist Strippers

9-13

9.2

Purity Requirements

9-19

9.2.1

Purification Methods

9-19

9.1.1.1 

Trends For Purity - Trace Elements

9-19

9.2.2

Particulates

9-20

9.2.2.1 

Particulate Removal Techniques

9-21

9.2.2.2 

Particle Monitoring

9-22

9.3

Chemical Management

9-23

9.4 

Gases

9-27

9.4.1

Requirements

9-27

9.4.1.1 

Purification Alternatives

9-27

9.4.2

Particulate Considerations

9-30

9.4.2.1 

Particle Monitoring

9-30

9.4.2.2  

Filtration Methods

9-30

9.4.3

Summary

9-31

9.5

Chemical Management

9-32

9.6

Sputtering and Evaporation Materials

9-34

9.6.1

Technology Issues

9-34

9.6.2

Purity Requirements

9-37

 

 

 

Chapter 10 

Contamination Issues and Trends

10-1

 

 

 

10.1

Liquid Chemicals

10-1

10.1.1

Purification Methods

10-1

10.1.2

Particulates

10-2

10.1.2.1

Effects on Yield

10-2

10.1.2.2

Particle Removal

10-5

10.1.2.3

Particle Monitoring

10-19

10.1.3

Bulk Distribution vs Bottles

10-20

10.1.4

Piping System Construction

10-21

10.1.4.1

Materials of Construction

10-21

10.1.4.2

Cost Analysis

10-22

10.2

Gases

10-25

10.2.1

Technology Issues

10-25

10.2.2

Requirements

10-27

10.2.2.1

Purification Alternatives

10-27

10.2.2.2

Purity Trends

10-31

10.2.2.3

Particulate Considerations

10-38

10.3

Deionized Water

10-40

10.3.1

Purification Specifications

10-40

10.3.2

Purification Methods

10-41

10.3.3

Purity Measurement Techniques

10-43

10.3.4

Filtration and Ultrafiltration

10-43

10.3.5

Piping System Construction

10-44

10.3.6

DI Water System Costs

10-45

10.4

Processing Equipment

10-46

10.4.1

Detection Methods

10-46

10.4.2

Removal Techniques

10-51

 

 

 

Chapter 11

Metrology

11-1

 

 

 

11.1

Defect Review/Wafer Inspection

11-1

11.1.2

Defect Review

11-2

11.1.2.1

SEM Defect Review

11-3

11.1.2.2

Optical Defect Review

11-5

11.1.2.3

Other Defect Review

11-5

11.1.3

Patterned Wafer Inspection

11-8

11.1.3.1

E-Beam Patterned Wafer Inspection

11-8

11.1.3.2

Optical Patterned Wafer Inspection

11-9

11.1.4

Unpatterned Wafer Inspection

11-12

11.1.5

Macro-Defect Inspection

11-14

11.2 

Thin Film Metrology

11-16

11.2.1

Metal Thin-Film Metrology

11-18

11.2.2 

Non-Metal Thin-Film Metrology

11-24

11.2.3 

Substrate Metrology

11-40

11.3

Lithography Metrology

11-43

11.3.1

Overlay

11-43

11.3.2

CD

11-48

11.3.3

Mask (Reticle) Metrology/Inspection

11-66

 

 

 

Chapter 12 

Market Forecast

12-1

 

 

 

12.1

Market Drivers

12-1

12.1.1

Semiconductor Market

12-1

12.1.2

Technical Trends

12-7

12.1.3

Economic Trends

12-12

12.1.4

Geographic Trends

12-16

12.1.1.1

China

12-16

12.1.4.2

Asia

12-19

12.1.4.3

Europe

12-26

12.1.4.4

Japan

12-30

12.1.4.5

United States

12-32

12.2

Market Forecast Assumptions

12-36

12.3

Low-K Market

12-37

12.4

Lithography Market

12-45

12.5

CMP Market

12-50

12.5.1

CMP Polisher Market

12-50

12.5.2

CMP Slurry Market

12-54

12.6

Factory Automation Market

12-59

12.7

Thin Film Deposition Market

12-67

12.7.1

Chemical Vapor Deposition Market

12-69

12.7.2

Physical Vapor Deposition Market

12-73

12.8

Plasma Etching Market

12-76

12.9

Cluster Tool Market

12-80

12.9.1

Flexible Cluster Tool Market

12-81

12.9.2

Non-Flexible Cluster Tool Market

12-84

12.10

Chemical and Materials Market

12-87

12.10.1

Forecast by Chemical and Material

12-87

12.10.2

Market Shares

12-95

12.11

Cleanroom and Contamination Market

12-100

12.12

Metrology Market

12-108

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

 

 

2.1

Interconnect Delay for Copper/Low-K

2-3

3.1 

Lithography Roadmap

3-6

3.2

Lens Arrangement For Submicron Features

3-18

3.3

EUV Lithography

3-43

3.4

Illustration of X-Ray Lithography

3-49

3.5

Schematic Of Scalpel Electron Beam System

3-56

3.6

Multi-Source E-Beam Lithography

3-58

3.7

Principles of LEEPL

3-61

3.8

Ion Projection Lithography System

3-64

3.9

Mulith Reference Distribution Aerial Image Formation

3-70

3.10

Schematic of Microlens

3-76

3.11

Mapper Mask-Based Lithography

3-78

3.12

Mapper Maskless Lithography

3-79

3.13

Nanoimprint Lithography Process

3-81

3.14

Nanoimprint Lithography Process

3-82

4.1

Planarization Lengths of Various Methods

4-16

4.2

Normalized Removal Rates

4-27

4.3

Reduced Complexity With Copper

4-43

4.4

Copper Loss From CMP

4-48

4.5

CMP Copper Process Technologies

4-50

4.6

CMP Performance Improvements

4-52

4.7

Polish Endpoint Control

4-81

5.1

Material-Control System

5-8

5.2

Traditional and Flexible Automated Material Handling System

5-10

5.3

Overhead Monorail Delivery - Cassette in Box, Cassette in SMIF Pod

5-16

5.4

Stocker Design and Interfaces

5-54

6.1

Schematic Of Sputtering System

6-3

6.2

Magnetron Sputtering Design

6-9

6.3

Showerhead Reactor Design

6-19

6.4

Ionized PVD

6-24

6.5

APCVD Reactor

6-36

6.6

Tube CVD Reactor

6-40

6.7

HDPCVD Reactor

6-50

7.1

Various Enhanced Designs (a) Helicon, (b) Multiple ECR, (c) Helical Resonator

7-4

7.2

Schematic of Inductively Coupled Plasma Source

7-6

7.3

Schematic of the HRe Source

7-9

7.4

Schematic of the Dipole Magnet Source

7-10

7.5

Schematic of Chemical Downstream Etch

7-11

7.6

Silicon Trench Structure 

7-21

7.7

Dual Damascene Dielectric Etch Approaches

7-35

8.1

Basic Cluster Tool Architecture

8-2

8.2

Basic Cluster Tool Architecture

8-3

8.3

Communications Architecture In A Cluster Tool

8-11

9.1

Chemical Management Services Tasks

9-24

10.1

Relationship Between Device Yield and Particles

10-4

10.2

Relationship Between Die Yield and Cost Size

10-6

10.3 

Sources of Particles

10-46

11.1

Thin Film Metrology Challenges

11-25

11.2

Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Diagram

11-32

11.4

ITRS Overlay Technology Roadmap

11-44

11.5

NIST Line Edge Roughness Model

11-53

11.6

ITRS Metrology Roadmap

11-57

11.7

Schematic Of OCD Optics

11-62

11.8

Microlithography Process And Measurements

11-67

12.1

Low-K Deposition Market Shares

12-44

12.2

Worldwide Lithography Market Shares

12-47

12.3

Semiconductor Equipment Utilization

12-61

12.4

Market Shares of Automated Wafer Transfer Suppliers

12-66

12.5

Worldwide MCVD Market Shares

12-71

12.6

Worldwide DCVD Market Shares

12-72

12.7

Worldwide PVD Market Shares 

12-75

12.8

Worldwide Market Shares for Dry Etch Equipment

12-78

12.9

Distribution of Etch Sales by Type

12-79

12.10

Market Forecast of Flexible Cluster Tools

12-82

12.11

Market Shares of Flexible Cluster Tools

12-83

12.12

Market Forecast of Non-Flexible Cluster Tools

12-85

12.13

Market Shares of Non-Flexible Cluster Tools

12-86

12.14

Worldwide Market Shares of Sputtering Target Suppliers

12-96

12.15

Worldwide Market Shares of Liquid Chemical Suppliers

12-97

12.16

Worldwide Market Shares of Photoresist Suppliers

12-98

12.17

Worldwide Market Shares of Silicon Wafer Suppliers

12-99

12.18

Total Metrology Market Forecast

12-110

12.19

Total Metrology Market By Geographic Region

12-112

12.20

Total Metrology Market Shares

12-113

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

 

 

 

2.1

Low-K Material Requirements

2-4

2.2

Low-K Materials

2-6

3.1

Lithography Requirements for IC Production

3-16

3.2

Advanced Optical Lithography Scenarios

3-27

3.3

Lithography Requirements

3-29

3.4

Characteristics of X-Ray Systems

3-47

4.1

Levels of Integration of Dynamic Rams

4-2

4.2

Interconnect Levels of Logic Device

4-3

4.3

Typical Process Specifications

4-11

4.4

Organic Polymers for IMD Applications

4-21

4.5 

CMP Process Variables

4-29

4.7

Optimized CMP and Post-CMP Clean Parameters

4-37

4.8

Interconnect Materials by Segment

4-46

7.1

Silicon Wafer Usage 

7-2

7.2

Plasma Source Comparison

7-12

7.3

Typical Process Specifications

7-18

7.4

Dry Resist Stripping Systems

7-51

8.1

Model for DRAM Production Line

8-5

9.1

Common Wafer Processing Chemicals

9-2

9.2

Photoresist Stripping Solutions

9-14

9.3

Wet Stripping Systems

9-17

10.1

Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Cleaning Methods

10-8

10.2

Chemical and Material Compatibility

10-18

10.3

Piping System Economic Analysis for Positive Developer

10-23

10.4

Gas Control System Issues

10-26

10.5

Range of Purity of CVD Gases

10-32

10.6

Potential Hazards of Processing Gases

10-37

10.7

Particle Sources

10-47

10.8

Location of In-Situ Monitors by Equipment Type

10-50

11.1

Comparison Of White-Light With Multiple-Angle Laser Ellipsometry

11-30

12.1

Worldwide Capital Spending

12-13

12.2

Worldwide GDP

12-14

12.3

Worldwide Market Forecast Low-K Market

12-38

12.4

Worldwide Stepper Market

12-46

12.5

Worldwide CMP Polisher Market

12-51

12.6

Worldwide CMP Market Shares

12-53

12.7

Worldwide CMP Slurry Market

12-55

12.8

Worldwide Forecast of Automated Transfer Tools

12-63

12.9

Worldwide CVD Market Forecast

12-70

12.10

Worldwide PVD Market Forecast

12-74

12.11

Worldwide Market Forecast of Plasma Etching Systems

12-77

12.12

Worldwide Forecast of Chemicals and Materials

12-88

12.13

Worldwide 300mm Wafer Fab Projects

12-104

12.14

Total Metrology Market Forecast

12-109